There are many myths surrounding gamblers who played professionally before the publication of the basic strategy of one-pack game by Americans Cantey McDermott and Maisel in 1958. All that happened before them is still a legend. They used a hand calculator to calculate their results. It was the publication of their calculations in the American Journal of the American Statistical Association that caused much excitement for statisticians and gamblers. Blackjack was considered a game that a common player could win. The popularity of the article in the magazine encouraged many players to copy it and make a book called “Winning Blackjack”. This book is rare and enriches many professional gamblers’ home libraries.
1962 saw Edward Thorp, who was using computer technology to calculate and publish in Beat The Dealer his basic strategy for playing as well as card counting. Thorp stated that blackjack is different from craps, roulette and other games of chance. The outcome of each hand in blackjack depends upon the previous dealing. It really does matter which cards were drawn back from the game and which cards remained in the pack. While most of Thorp’s calculations are still accurate, all serious gamblers should only read this book for historical information.
Thorp’s “10 count system”, which Thorp created for one-pack games, was a great success and is now available in all Nevada casinos vworld88 official. It was difficult to learn, so most gamblers abandoned it. The casinos in Nevada did not allow double down on certain points, so they restricted the rules. It was widely reported by the media and Thorp’s book became well-known around the globe. Casinos that were found to be in financial disadvantage had to revert to their old rules. Operators of gambling houses realized that card counters in such situations would try to beat the house and introduced two methods – shuffling after withdrawing the trim card and multi-packed.
In practice, Thorp’s systems were very difficult to use. The game would not change for the 1963 computer conference in Las Vegas. The conference organizers added a panel session on “Using computers in games of chance and skill” to their program. The organizers decided to add a section on “Using computers in games that involve skill and chance” as a spur of the moment. Thorp was named Chairman of the Panel, and experts on various casino games such as blackjack, roulette, and baccarat. Computer gamblers flooded the room. Many conference attendees were trying to force their way into the room.
Thorp had drawn the crowd. They expected to hear some new information about the game, and they were prepared to use his wisdom immediately after the session to make a killing on the blackjack tables.
Harvey Dubner was introduced after a few more presentations, which mainly modified and corrected Thorp’s system. He explained the method. Dubner counted the remaining high cards (10.J,Q.K.A.) and low cards (2.3,4,5.6. As cards were being played, Dubner divided their difference by the total cards still to be played. The High-Low Ratio was what Dubner called it. The standing-room only crowd was enthusiastically greeted his presentation and gave him a round of applause after it was over. Many were expressing satisfaction that he had finally presented a practical system that could be applied in real-world casino play. Thorp included the “high-low” system in Beat the Dealer’s second edition published 1966. Since then, over 100 professional books have been published on blackjack, team games and shuffle tracking.